Eugene A. Gilmore earned his legal degree from Harvard in 1892. After practicing law for several years in Boston, he served as a professor at University of Wisconsin from 1902 to 1922. Thereafter he was Vice Governor-General in the Philippine Islands, as well as Acting Governor-General, between 1922 and 1929.
He served as dean of University of Iowa College of Law from 1930 to 1934, before serving as President of the University of Iowa from 1934 to 1940. After two years as dean at University of Pittsburgh, he returned to Iowa City. He died in 1953.